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THE FORGERY OF MATTHEW 27:52b AND 53
[Excerpts taken from: Daniel L. McConaughy (Seventh Way Corps), Early Patristic Evidence For The Forgery Of Matthew 27:52b And 53, GMIR (from Aramaic gmr – "to perfect”, presenting the necessary documentation to get back the original, God-inspired Word, by believing on 2 Tim. 2:15), The Way Magazine, May-June 1982]
"And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many” (Mt. 27:51-53).
The words in red were added by a latter editor.
Even W. C. Allen comments:
"This passage probably comes from… Palestinian traditions… If Christ was the first-fruits of them that slept [as 1 Cor. 15:22-23 declares *], how could His resurrection have been preceded by that of these saints? Under the influence of such idea, the editor adds the caution, "after His resurrection” [which in its previous tampered form seems to have been "after their resurrection”] (Allen, W.C. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary of the Gospel According to Matthew, 3rd ed. Edimburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1912, p. 296).
Early writings that doesn’t quote the forgery:
Tertullian (c. 160-c. 225 A.D.), from Carthage in North Africa, does not include this questionable section in An Answer to the Jews, 13:14, where one would expect him to use it for the benefit of his argument if it were in his text:
"My People [says God to the Hebrews] hath changed their glory: whence no profit shall accrue to them: the heaven turned pale thereat" (and when did it turn pale? undoubtedly when Christ suffered), "and shuddered," he says, "most exceedingly;" and "the sun grew dark at mid-day:" (and when did it "shudder exceedingly" except at the passion of Christ, when the earth also trembled to her centre, and the veil of the temple was rent, and the tombs were burst asunder? "because these two evils hath My People done; Me," He says, "they have quite forsaken, the fount of water of life, and they have digged for themselves worn-out tanks, which will not be able to contain water." ” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, III, 170).
Also, in Tertullian’s On Fasting, chapter 10, is a reference to Matthew 27:45-54 in which the material in question is not mentioned:
"And so the "pressure" must be maintained up to that hour in which the orb--involved from the sixth hour in a general darkness--performed for its dead Lord a sorrowful act of duty; so that we too may then return to enjoyment when the universe regained its sunshine.” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, IV, 109).
Tertullian’s Apology, chapter 21, concerning the crucifixion, also makes no note of the addition:
"In the same hour, too, the light of day was withdrawn, when the sun at the very time was in his meridian blaze. Those who were not aware that this had been predicted about Christ, no doubt thought it an eclipse. You yourselves [the Jews] have the account of the world-portent still in your archives. Then, when His body was taken down from the cross and placed in a sepulchre, the Jews in their eager watchfulness surrounded it with a large military guard” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, III).
Thus, we can conclude that Tertullian did not have this forgery in his Biblical text, which was in use in North Africa at the end of the second century.
Melito, The Philosopher (d. 190) of Sardis (about 120 miles northwest of Ephesus), in The Discourse On Soul And Body (his document II) does not quote the forgery either:
"And further on:--The earth shook, and its foundations trembled; the sun fled away, and the elements turned back, and the day was changed into night: for they could not endure the sight of their Lord hanging on a tree. The whole creation was amazed” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VIII, 756).
Nor in Melito’s document IV. On Faith:
"He who was betrayed by Judas; He who was apprehended by the priests; He who was condemned by Pilate; He who was pierced in the flesh; He who was hanged on the tree; He who was buried in the earth; He who rose from the place of the dead; He who appeared to the apostles; He who was carried up to heaven; He who is seated at the right hand of the Father”
Neither in Melito’s document V:
"Thou [Jew] slewest thy Lord, and He was lifted up upon the tree; and an inscription was fixed above, to show who He was that was slain. And who was this? (that which we shall not say is too shocking to hear, and that which we shall say is very dreadful: nevertheless hearken, and tremble.) It was He because of whom the earth quaked. He… was Himself hanged up; He… was fixed with nails; He… was borne up on a tree; the Lord of all was subjected to ignominy in a naked body… the King of Israel slain with Israel's right hand! Alas for the new wickedness of the new murder! The Lord was exposed with naked body: He was not deemed worthy even of covering; and, in order that He might not be seen, the luminaries turned away, and the day became darkened… hung naked on the tree. It was not the body of our Lord that the luminaries covered with darkness when they set, but the eyes of men. For, because the people quaked not, the earth quaked; because they were not affrighted, the earth was affrighted. Thou smotest thy Lord: thou also hast been smitten upon the earth. And thou indeed liest dead; but He is risen from the place of the dead, and ascended to the height of heaven, having suffered for the sake of those who suffer, and having been bound for the sake of Adam's race which was imprisoned, and having been judged for the sake of him who was condemned, and having been buried for the sake of him who was buried. And further on:--This… was announced by means of the law and the prophets; who put on a bodily form in the Virgin; who was hanged upon the tree; who was buried in the earth; who rose from the place of the dead, and ascended to the height of heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VIII, 757-758).
McConaughy includes the reference to the Homily on the Passion, paragraph 98, of Melito (that he spells as Melitio), that does not quote the forgery either.
Here we can see that this heresy by the fourth quadrant of the second century had not found its way to Asia minor from where Ignatius was also (see below).
Cyprian’s of Carthage (d. 258), in On the Advantage of Patience, chapter 7:
"And when at the cross, of the Lord the stars are confounded, the elements are disturbed, the earth quakes, night shuts out the day, the sun, that he may not be compelled to look on the crime of the Jews, withdraws both his rays and his eyes…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, V, 486).
Cyprian of Carthage mentions only that when the tombs burst open and the bodies were exposed, that the "bodies returning to the light were restored,” also making no mention of their entrance and appearance in Jerusalem, in On the Glory of Martyrdom, chapter 29:
"The day fled into the night; the light gave up all things into darkness; and, its mass being inclined backwards and forwards, the whole earth was jarred, and burst open; the dead were disturbed, the graves were laid bare, and as the tombs gaped open into the rent of the earth, bodies returning to the light were restored; the world trembled at the flowing of His blood; and the veil which hung from the opening of the temple was rent, and all the temple uttered a groan.” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, V, 587).
This corruption is also not mentioned in Cyprian’s On Mount Sinai and Sion, chapter 8.
In The Recognitions of Clement (Chap. XLI. -Rejection Of The True Prophet and Chap. XLII. -Call Of The Gentiles), a Judean Christian work, written in the first quarter of the third century, though resting with the Homilies upon an older document, we find a clear omission of this added material:
"…though He cured every sickness and infirmity among the people, wrought innumerable miracles, and preached eternal life, was hurried by wicked men to the cross; which deed was, however, by His power turned to good. In short, while He was suffering, all the world suffered with Him; for the sun was darkened, the mountains were torn asunder, the graves were opened, the veil of the temple was rent, as in lamentation for the destruction impending over the place. And yet, though all the world was moved, they themselves are not even now moved to the consideration of these so great things…Meantime, when He had suffered, and darkness had overwhelmed the world from the sixth even to the ninth hour, as soon as the sun shone out again, and things were returned to their usual course, even wicked men returned to themselves and their former practices, their fear having abated…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VIII, 88).
Arnobius (d. 330), also of Africa, in Against the Heathen, book 1, chapter 53, adds a little more to Matthew 27:52 (he adds that "the sea was heaved up from its depths”), but he does not mention the forgery of "many bodies of the saints which slept arose”, etc.:
"An earthquake shook the world, the sea was heaved up from its depths, the heaven was shrouded in darkness, the sun's fiery blaze was checked, and his heat became moderate…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VI, 428).
Lactantius (d. 320, a pupil of Arnobius), who handles his Biblical texts accurately and frequently, makes no mention of the dead rising in The Divine Institutes, book 4, chapter 19 - Of The Death, Burial, And Resurrectionn Of Jesus; And The Predictions Of These Events (written 304-311):
"Therefore, being lifted up and nailed to the cross, He cried to the Lord with a loud voice, and of His own accord gave up His spirit. And at the same hour there was an earthquake; and the veil of the temple, which separated the two tabernacles, was rent into two parts; and the sun suddenly withdrew its light, and there was darkness from the sixth even to the ninth hour. Of which event the prophet Amos testifies: "And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, that the sun shall go down at noon, and the daylight shall be darkened; and I will turn your feasts into mourning, and your songs into lamentation." Also Jeremiah: "She who brings forth is affrighted, and vexed in spirit; her sun is gone down while it was yet mid-day; she hath been ashamed and confounded; and the residue of them will I give to the sword in the sight of their enemies." And the Sibyl: -"And the veil of the temple shall be rent, and at midday there shall bedark vast night for three hours," When these things were done, even by the heavenly prodigies, they were not able to understand their crime…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VII, 122).
Finally, we come to Origin (c. 185-254), a prolific textual critic, exegete and theologian. In his Homily on Exodus 7:7, referring to Matthew 27:51-54, he omits the forgery, as he also does in Against Celsus. In Book II of Against Celsus, the forgeries are omitted, even at the cost of not benefiting Origen’s statement. From chapter 33 we read:
" "But," continues Celsus, "what great deeds did Jesus perform…? Did he put his enemies to shame, or bring to a ridiculous conclusion what was designed against him?" Now to this question, although we are able to show the striking and miraculous character of the events which befell Him, yet from what other source can we furnish an answer than from the Gospel narratives, which state that "there was an earthquake, and that the rocks were split asunder, and the tombs opened, and the veil of the temple rent in twain from top to bottom, and that darkness prevailed in the day-time, the sun failing to give light?" But if Celsus believe the Gospel accounts when he thinks that he can find in them matter of charge against the Christians… our answer to him is: "Sir, either disbelieve all the Gospel narratives, and then no longer imagine that you can found charges upon them; or… yield… your belief to their statements…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, IV, 444-445).
Here Origen does not mention the addition to Matthew. Celsus wrote about 178 A.D. He writes the following, as quoted in Against Celsus, chapter 55:
"The Jew continues his address to those of his countrymen who are converts, as follows: "Come now, let us grant to you that the prediction was actually uttered… But the question is, whether any one who was really dead ever rose with a veritable body. Or do you imagine the statements of others not only to be myths [previously Celsus the Jew had quoted heathen myths: of Zamolxis in Scythia, the slave of Pythagoras; of Pythagoras himself in Italy; of Rhampsinitus in Egypt (the latter of whom, they say, played at dice with Demeter in Hades, and returned to the upper world with a golden napkin which he had received from her as a gift); and also of Orpheus among the Odrysians, and Protesilaus in Thessaly, and Hercules at Cape Taenarus, and Theseus], but to have the appearance of such, while you have discovered a becoming and credible termination to your drama in the voice from the cross, when he breathed his last, and in the earthquake and the darkness? That while alive he was of no assistance to himself, but that when dead he rose again, and showed the marks of his punishment, and how his hands were pierced with nails: who beheld this? A half-frantic woman, as you state, and some other one, perhaps…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, IV, 453).
Either Celsus did not have this forgery in his text or, if it was circulating at his time, it was considered to be of doubtful value.
In Against Celsus chapter 59, we come back to Origen, who, in countering Celsus, again makes no reference to Matthew 27:52b and 53:
"He [Celsus] imagines also that both the earthquake and the darkness were an invention; but regarding these, we have in the preceding pages, made our defence, according to our ability, adducing the testimony of Phlegon, who relates that these events took place at the time when our Saviour suffered…” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, IV, 455).
In the preceding chapters Origen made no mention of the forgery either.
We conclude with an excerpt of Origen from chapter 16:
"…ye acknowledge that he [Jesus] openly suffered"… we do not view His sufferings as having been merely in appearance, in order that His resurrection also may not be a false, but a real event. For he who really died, actually arose, if he did arise; whereas he who appeared only to have died, did not in reality arise. But since the resurrection of Jesus Christ is a subject of mockery to unbelievers, we shall quote the words of Plato, that Erus the son of Armenius rose from the funeral pile twelve days after he had been laid upon it, and gave an account of what he had seen in Hades; and as we are replying to unbelievers, it will not be altogether useless to refer in this place to what Heraclides relates respecting the woman who was deprived of life. And many persons are recorded to have risen from their tombs, not only on the day of their burial, but also on the day following. What wonder is it, then, if in the case of One who performed many marvellous things, both beyond the power of man and with such fulness of evidence, that he who could not deny their performance, endeavoured to calumniate them by comparing them to acts of sorcery, should have manifested also in His death some greater display of divine power, so that His soul, if it pleased, might leave its body, and having performed certain offices out of it, might return again at pleasure? And such a declaration is Jesus said to have made in the Gospel of John, when He said: "No man taketh My life from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again." ” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, IV, 438).
Obviously, if Matthew 27:52b and 53 was considered to be of high value, Origen would have used it. Though it was suitable for Origen to comment on it in his commentaries (for he was a textual critic and was aware of the different readings), it was unsuitable for use in a polemical work where evidence had to be logical and solid.
The evidence that, thus far, is found in Tertullian, Melito, Cyprian, The Recognitions, Arnobius, Lactantius, and Origen is overwhelming. Matthew 27:52b and 53 is a forgery and, although the entire mass of new Testament manuscripts have it, the early church fathers do not. The first areas where error arose were Rome and Alexandria, centers of paganism and philosophy, respectively. As time went on, the corrupt texts of those leading cities held more and more authority, so that in time, the error moved out into outlying areas. The first addition was probably "and many bodies of the saints that had fallen asleep arose,” as is witnessed to by some early writers. Since this chronologically was incorrect, they added "and came out of the tombs after his resurrection…”. Forgers added these expressions to make it sound like Jesus was the first one up. The Greek word for "Resurrection”, used here " egersiV ”, is also interesting because it is not used anywhere else in the New Testament or in other early Christian literature, thus indicating a later use of the word. The earliest Christian writer who seem to be using this word [if that was not also a later forgery on his writings] is Irenaeus, in which we found also the earliest witness to this forgery.
Early writings quoting the forgery:
"For neither did it happen at the death of any man among the ancients that the sun set at mid-day, nor was the veil of the temple rent, nor did the earth quake, nor were the rocks rent, nor did the dead rise up, nor was any one of these men [of old] raised up on the third day, nor received into heaven, nor at his assumption were the heavens opened, nor did the nations believe in the name of any other; nor did any from among them, having been dead and rising again, lay open the new covenant of liberty” (Irenaeus’ Against Heresies, Book 4, 34:4, In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, I, 512).
This section has much non-Biblical material (the source of our forgery) as well, but here it is clear to see that this tradition was in circulation in Gaul before 200 A. D. [if Irenaeus really wrote it]. Irenaeus (c. 130-c. 200 A.D.) was the first bishop of Lyons in what is now France.
"How shall we be able to live apart from Him, whose disciples the prophets themselves in the Spirit did wait for Him as their Teacher? And therefore He whom they rightly waited for, being come, raised them from the dead” (Ignatius to the Magnesians 9:2, In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, I, 62) [to see the forgeries over the works of Ignatius go to: http://fdocc3.ucoz.com/index/0-6].
Clement of Alexandria (d. 215), in the Stromata 47:1 [if he wrote it], does include this spurious section:
"And it is well said by the Shepherd, "They went down with them therefore into the water, and again ascended. But these descended alive, and again ascended alive. But those who had fallen asleep, descended dead, but ascended alive." Further the Gospel says, "that many bodies of those that slept arose," --plainly as having been translated to aa better state. There took place, then, a universal movement and translation through the economy of the Saviour.” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, II, 491).
Clement’s background was Gnostic and the reference to "the Shepherd” (of Hermas – a book of "visions” written in Rome about 140, also believed by Irenaeus to be "scripture”) shows that he was significantly influenced by non-Biblical material. In addition, Clement, just a few lines before this section says, "God is no respecter of persons,” agreeing with Peter’s great revelation in Acts 10:34. Now, if God is no respecter of persons, why did Clement say, "many of the bodies of those that slept arose” instead of "all the bodies”? If God had actually raised the He would have had to raise all of them so as not to be a "respecter of persons.” Matthew 27:52b has "many bodies of the saints” also. Here is another contradiction the forgery produced, as Clement of Alexandria did not perceive this one even though the contradiction lies in the same paragraph. When a man turns from the true Word of God, his logic is forever wrong.
Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170-c. 236) in Against the Heresy of One Noetus, chapter 18, does include the dead being raised, although their appearance and entrance into Jerusalem are not mentioned, as also do Irenaeus and Alexander. Obviously, the verse gradually acquired new accretions with the passing of time, as we shall see:
"For His sake the sun is darkened, the day has no light, the rocks are shattered, the veil is rent, the foundations of the earth are shaken, the graves are opened, and the dead are raised, and the rulers are ashamed when they see the Director of the universe upon the cross closing His eye and giving up the ghost. Creation saw, and was troubled; and, unable to bear the sight of His exceeding glory, shrouded itself in darkness.” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, V, 230).
In his Chronographia, a history of the world up to 217 A. D., Julius Africanus, on reporting concerning the circumstances of the passion and resurrection, makes mention of bodies being raised but not entering into Jerusalem:
"But what has an eclipse in common with an earthquake, the rending rocks, and the resurrection of the dead, and so great a perturbation throughout the universe?” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VI, 136-37).
We can see that the African text is beginning to give in to the onslaught of the corrupt Alexandrian and Roman texts.
Alexander, bishop of Alexandria (d. 321), in his Epistle on the Arian Heresy (V.-On The Soul And Body And The Passion Of The Lord, 6.), does include this section, as did his predecessor, Clement:
"For when our Lord was suffering upon the cross, the tombs were burst open, the infernal region was disclosed, the souls leapt forth, the dead returned to life, and many of them were seen in Jerusalem, whilst the mystery of the cross was being perfected” (In: Roberts and Donaldson’s Ante-Nicene Fathers, VI, 301).
This heresy had been circulating in Alexandria for at least a century by the time Alexander wrote. Here we can also observe the second accretion to the forgery, "many of them were seen in Jerusalem.”
The Alexandrian school of interpretation promoted the allegorical method which attempted to read what was not written in the Bible, which was only possible for an elite intellectual few ("the initiated in the mysteries”).
In the commentaries on Matthew and Romans of Origen we have the forged material under question but this can be an additional tampering done either by Jerome or by Rufinus, as seen elsewhere (http://fdocc3.ucoz.com/index/0-12).
All references: Roberts, Alexander, and Donaldson, James, eds. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1979.
To see the importance of the Biblical teaching of the dead being dead until the coming of Jesus Christ: http://fdocc.ucoz.com/index/0-80
To see another forgery done to the book of Matthew: http://fdocc3.ucoz.com/index/0-7
[* Note: "For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming” (1Cor 15:22-23). According to the Bible, dead people still dead until the return of Jesus Christ. Dead people is not alive in some other condition or place, they all are "sleeping”. Understanding this truth is vital to discern the original lie of Satan, as presented in massive "religious” events of deception, as it is in the beatification of "saints” performed by the catholic church (in reality every born again believer is a saint according to God, because of receiving holy spirit from God. To became a saint does not depend on a human organization, is God’s business of grace. A saint is not a "soul in heaven which passed away to a better life”, a born again saint can be at your side right now even against the general indifference, thanks God that since the day of Pentecost born again saints have been on earth, preventing, really restraining the coming of the antichrist, because born again saints have Christ in them, the hope of glory. The mainstream of the born again saints have been present outside the instituted and organized philosophical and pagan "religious institutions”, disguised as "Christian”). Let’s read part of a recent report of such heathen catholic activity opposed to God’s Word (in bold letters the catholic abominations),
"beatification may be granted by the Roman Catholic Church to a person who is seen as having been of overwhelming virtue, whose goodness has been sustained after death and who is deemed to have interceded from beyond the grave in a miracle, usually a medical cure that bears no scientific explanation. Once beatified, the "blessed” and relics associated with them may be venerated. The pope John Paul II was presented with a piece of cloth stained with Mother Teresa [of Calcutta’s] blood that is to be displayed in a Roman church for veneration. Beatification usually leads to the catholic sainthood once there is evidence of a second miracle… [that] pope has beatified more than 1,300 individuals in his 25-year tenure”, in other excerpt of the same source we can read, "the celebration included a lunch for 2,000 of Rome’s homeless, but some of the participants were quoted as saying that the baked pasta and chicken was not in quite the same league as a meal of shrimp mousse, duck and truffles that the pope offered cardinals and other [catholic] dignitaries” (information taken from: Alan Cowell, NY Times, Monday, October 20, 2003, "Fading pope beautifies ‘brave woman’, Mother Teresa declared step closer to sainthood”).
A previous report reads,
"a miracle is required for beatification. The [roman catholic] church accepted the case of Monica Besra, a Hindu woman [that has been living for a long time] in a Missionaries of Charity hospice [that also is a Mother Theresa’s foundation] who [Besra, apparently] recovered from a large malignant tumor in her abdomen or tubercular meningitis, depending of the diagnosing doctor. The "miracle” was credited to Mother Teresa’s intercession [the catholic church and followers believe that dead people still alive in heaven after their death, if they were good on earth, according to their own imaginary standards based only on deeds, not on grace, not on right believing (as in God’s standards). Even that weakened pope said in that "ceremony”, according to the previous report: "her [Teresa’s] greatness lies in her ability to give without counting the cost, to give ‘until it hurts’ ”. Catholics believe erroneously that dead good people still alive in heaven, and that they can "help” people that continues alive on earth. So, according to the "catholic logic”, what need of Christ’s return under that faked scenario of the "catholic intercession of dead people that is not really dead but that still alive on heaven”? Or what need of Christ’s only advocacy as our only one mediator and our only Way to God? With the catholic wrongful idea of "sainthood”, they allow spiritualism and evil spirits to impersonate their "beloved departed ones”]”, the same report also says, "doctors who treated Besra [the "probe” of a "miracle, supposedly performed by a dead person that is not really dead, but alive and "making points”, to became "a saint” according to the catholic rule”, but who can track Besra as to see who really is her?, whatever Besra’s fate, her damage is already done to still playing in the favorite game of Satan, deceiving people], however, refute the miraculous claim, saying medicine is what [apparently] healed her [so Besra’s case is a lie within a lie]. A second "confirmed” miracle is necessary for sainthood” (source: AP, Saturday, October 18, 2003).
The catholic "beatification” and "sainthood” is a promotion of the old lie of the serpent "you will not surely die, you will be as gods”. However, God’s Word is and will be still the truth (even after that catholic church extinction): "you will surely die, other than in Christ there is no hope”, "Christ is our only advocate our only mediator, our only hope, who is the only human alive in heaven”, "if you confess that Jesus is your Lord and believe that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved, you will became a child of God, and you will certainly be rescued from the wrath to come”. The catholic practices are idolatry denounced by God as abomination, no matter how sincere or how convincing it may appear to our five senses, "oh, look a holy dying pope”, "oh, she was an old good nun that now is in heaven”, and "look, millions of people are here!”, and "look at the glory of the Vatican!”, but all of that is wiped out in God’s eyes. The only hope for any born again Christian is the second coming of Jesus Christ, that’s when, and only when real Christians are going to be raised from the dead, and after them, similarly, the real Christians alive at that moment are going to be changed with an immortal spiritual body. After that, being a period of time in between, all the rest of humanity is going to raise again, some to eternal life, and some to experience the second death. Again and again, "sincerity is not guarantee for truth” and "good deeds will never replace the truth”. Let’s continue reading and studying the Word of God, the Bible, every day of our lives, ‘till he comes.]
Related to the expression of the pope to give "until it hurts”, a most recent report declares that,
"Many traditional "Christian theologians”, particularly Catholics, dismiss the message that faith [the faith of Jesus Christ in us] will bring wealth and success”… The Catholic Secretariat in Lagos [Iheanyi Enwerem, wrongfully have said], "In life, there are certain things we can’t have because God doesn’t want it”… As a "Response to rigidity”, there are more and more born again Christians that speak in tongues in Africa ["Christianity on uprising in Africa” (second of two parts), Oct. 25, 2003, by Somini Sengupta and Larry Rohter, New York Times].